(as of 10/10/99)
Blair, Nancy L.
Blake, Donna W.
Blum, Stanley D.
Brandt, Lawrence E.
Broome, Frederick R.
Cole, Daniel G.
de La Beaujardiere, Jeff
Evans, John D.
Flynn, Randall E.
Foresman, Timothy W.
Furr, T. Wayne
Gaines, Alan M.
Gomon, Janet R.
Goodchild, Michael F.
Hill, Linda L.
Hittelman, Allen M.
Lopez, Xavier R.
Niemann, Brand L.
Norton, Leslie J.
Norton, Tim J.
Olsen, Lola M.
Ramsey, R. Douglas
Rand, Roberta Y.
Rasmussen, Edie M.
Regan, Priscilla M.
Rugg, Robert D.
Smith, David G.
Smyth, Carl Stephen
Weitzman, Anna L.
White, David K.
Zeng, Marcia Lei
He received his B.S. in computer, M.A. in statistics in China, and his Ph.D. in applied economics from Clemson University in 1996. He was a research scientist at MathSoft for 1996 to 1997. He was the primary developer for the SpaceStat-ArcView extension and the S-PLUS for ArcView. His primary interest is in spatial statistics, GIS, and their applications in social sciences.
I am interested in issues on spatial data deployment in various formats, metadata management on server and client sites, spatial data query over different sites, and online analysis with statistical capabilities.
Shuming Bao, Ph.D.
China Data Center
University of Michigan
Suite 3630, 1080 S. University
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1106
Dr. Kate Beard is an associate professor and chair of the Department of Spatial Information Science Engineering at the University of Maine. She has been a research faculty with the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) since its beginning in 1989. She holds a M.S. (1984) and Ph.D. (1988) from the Institute for Environmental Studies, Land Resources Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison where she specialized in geographic information systems. Her current research focuses on digital libraries, metadata and spatial data quality, uncertainty of spatial data and visualization of spatial data quality. Dr Beard has been a cooperator on the Alexandria Digital Library project centered at the University of California Santa Barbara, she was PI on a project to develop a digital spatial library for the Gulf of Maine, and is currently a PI on a project to develop a digital library for Maine Lakes. Her work on data quality covers metadata representation, management and tracking of errors in spatial databases, and various methods for visualizing and communicating data quality. Dr. Beard is one of four PIs on a three year grant from the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) to investigate uncertainty in spatial databases. She is a PI on another NIMA grant that is investigating the integration of geospatial data and imagery. Dr. Beard is also a PI on a two-year grant from NSF to investigate the application of spatial concepts to genome mapping. Other research interests include investigations of spatial resolution and scale issues in the distribution of environmental variables. Dr. Beard has authored or co-authored over 50 articles in journals, books and conference proceedings in the area of geographic information science.
Dr Beard is serving a two year term as board member for the Cartography
and Geographic Information Science Society. She serves on the Editorial
Board of URISA journal and is a member of the American Congress on Surveying
and Mapping, the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, the
Geospatial Information Technology Association, and the Association for
American Geographers. She teaches Introduction to GIS, GIS Applications,
Spatial Analysis, Community Information Systems and seminars on Uncertainty
in Spatial Databases, Automated Generalization and Visualization of Data
The value of USGS library participation in this workshop would be to
discuss the benefits of gazetteer data for indirect geospatial referencing.
A properly constructed gazetteer would facilitate the conversion of non-map
and older map catalog records to permit geospatial searching without handling
each publication. It would allow reference librarians and library
users to automatically translate the names of county, geographic features,
and quadrangles to enhance search retrievals. The issues of the meeting
apply to retrospective cataloging and in designing databases such as the
USGS National Geologic Map Database. Combining the efforts to develop
a gazetteer would prevent duplication of work and ensure capability in
The Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMSO) funds and the Office
of the Ocean Executive Agent (OEA) manages the Master Environmental Library
(MEL) project, which is being developed to provide access to environmental
resources. The MEL will provide access to geospatial data as well
as to related environmental documentation and information. A key
component of MEL is the metadata development. We are working to the
ISO standards for geospatial metadata. I am interested in whether the capabilities
that you are discussing for the DGIE are compatible with those that we
are developing for the MEL in the search for location, etc.
Stan Blum is the Research Information Manager at the California Academy of
Sciences, San Francisco. By academic training he is a systematic ichthyologist
(the classification of fishes; Ph.D. Zoology, University of Hawaii, 1988). Since
1990, however, he has been working full-time in biodiversity and natural history
collections informatics. The two most important themes in his work have been:
1) designing integrated information systems for natural history museums (i.e.,
systems that support a wide variety of collection disciplines, collection management
practices, and uses of collection information), and 2) developing data standards
and software architectures that will enable data to be integrated across distributed
and heterogeneous collection databases. He recently organized "A Workshop on
the Compilation, Maintenance, and Dissemination of Taxonomic Authority Files."
The purpose of the workshop was to provide an initial forum for members of the
systematics and library/information science communities to discuss concepts,
practices, and technologies that will promote consistency in the cataloging,
indexing, and retrieval of biological information. Workshop results indicated
that biological taxonomy and classification would provide a challenging test
bed for cross-discipline work involving thesaurus development, authority control,
cooperative cataloging, and multi-thesaurus integration. Participants recommended
that the dialog between the communities continue, particularly under the framework
of DL research.
Home page: http://www.cise.nsf.gov/eia/brandt
Dr. Buckley is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at
the University of Oregon. Her full CV is available at http://geography.uoregon.edu/buckley/
under "Curriculum Vitae". Dr. Buckley teaches courses in cartography,
GIS, and visualization. Her research interests include cartographic
theory and methods, GIS analysis, and environmental applications of geographic
techniques. She holds the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy (1997)
from Oregon State University, Master of Arts
(1993) from Indiana University, and Bachelor of Arts (1982) from Valparaiso University, all in Geography, and has also studied at Michigan State University. Before starting the doctoral degree, she held an internship at the National Geographic Society where she worked on the sixth edition of their Atlas of the World. She is now involved in the second revision of the Atlas of Oregon.
"Having recently been awarded funding, we are in the process of starting up a project to compile a new revision of the Atlas of Oregon. It is our intent to provide this atlas in both book and electronic formats, using the web to disseminate maps, images, the data used to compile the maps, and other geographic information that will support and supplement the atlas in book form. We are very interested in participating in the workshop because one part of the digital atlas we will be producing is a digital gazetteer. The researchers and cartographers involved in the atlas project already have experience in paper and digital atlas compilation as well as serving maps and map data using the Internet. These two activities are often not united, as atlases tend to be released in paper or digital form, but not both. We are extremely interested in finding ways to supplement the book atlas with an easily accessible, stand-alone electronic atlas, including the gazetteer and all the related geographic information. Electronic dissemination of the information will serve many more people than those who may purchase the book atlas, including academicians, teachers, researchers, and public and private agency workers throughout the state (and perhaps beyond). We are currently considering the gazetteer as the primary mechanism to (1) unite the electronic atlas with the book atlas, and (2) provide the gateway into the digital database (including maps, images, text, and more).
We believe this approach to compilation and dissemination of the geographic
information in the new Atlas of Oregon is unique and unprecedented.
We would very much appreciate the opportunity to learn from others about
the challenges we are sure to meet, and we look forward to an opportunity
to share our unique perspectives on the project with others."
From 1991 to 1995, Carroll was art director of National Geographic Magazine, producing historical, scientific, and informational artwork, and leading an effort to establish a corporate identity program for the Society. Carroll received two gold medals from the Society of Illustrators for his work during this period. Carroll has also served as director of design for the Society's Cartographic Division (prior to its transition to NG Maps), and as art director of the Society's Historical Atlas of the United States, a richly-illustrated history of America in maps, pictures and text produced for the Society's centennial in 1988. Prior to joining the Society in 1983, Carroll was a free-lance illustrator and designer in Washington, serving clients such as The Washington Post, Smithsonian Institution, Readers Digest, The New Republic, the American Film Institute, and Johns Hopkins University. Self-trained in design, illustration, and cartography, Carroll is a magna cum laude graduate of Connecticut College, and was born and raised in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Dan Cole is the GIS Coordinator for the Smithsonian Institution. He holds the degrees of Masters of Arts (1979) from Michigan State University, and Bachelor of Arts (1977) from SUNY Albany, and has also studied at Oregon State University. Prior to gaining the current position in 1990, he served as a research cartographer at the National Museum of Natural History between 1986 to 1990. He had also previously worked as a cartographer at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of Maryland. His current research interests include digital cartographic analysis of American Indian land tenure, and investigations of biodiversity through the GIS/Remote Sensing interface.
As a constant user of the GNIS and the GeoNet names server, I am frequently
aware of the need for accurate digital gazeteer information. Because
most Smithsonian scientists work in the international arena, we find the
need to locate many current and historic place names that often have variant
spellings. Use of digital gazeteer information enables much more efficient mapping and geographic analysis.
I was a member of the New Haven Census Use Study staff that developed the "DIME" map encoding process in 1967. DIME was an early implementation of redundant encoding, error checking and topological data structures and served as a precursor to the Census "TIGER" digital street map of the USA.
I've participated in three information business start-ups, all currently
operating, including Geographic Data Technology, Inc (GDT), a digital map
publisher. I served on the Board of URISA in the 1970s and as a member
of the National Academy of Sciences' Mapping Science Committee. I
have a bachelor's degree from Yale and spent a year at MIT doing graduate work in information systems and artificial intelligence.
My professional interests currently include implementation of WWW-based update and distribution infrastructure for spatial databases. The current vision ("Community Update") is a public-private partnership concentrating on street centerline data (like TIGER). The intent is to capture new street and address information at the point of origin in municipalities in as friction-free manner as possible, marrying the map database strengths of GDT with the proximity of municipal workers to changes. Benefits should include relieving municipal employees of GIS update technicalities while providing more current spatial data to all GIS users.
I trust that these issues are sufficiently related to the study of gazetteers
to provide some useful contributions to the DGIE workshop.
Associate Chief Biologist for Information
U.S. Geological Survey/Biological Resources Division
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, 300 National Center,
Reston, VA 20192
I work on the technical development and implementation of Digital Earth
specifications at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. I contribute
to the Digital Earth Reference Model and the OpenGIS Consortium Web Mapping
Testbed. The vision of Digital Earth includes being able to find
information about a place, regardless of who collected the data, how it
is stored and formatted, and what processing or value-adding was performed.
Gazetteer functionality is essential to this endeavor.
My research seeks to build online geoprocessing services into a robust Web-based infrastructure for more effective sharing of geographic information. Many forms of spatial data can be made more accessible and useful through online services; my recent focus has been digital orthophotos and satellite imagery. Recent accomplishments include interoperability with clients and online services; and replication of open-source client and server components via the Web. This work is sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, and collaborates with the Federal Geographic Data Committee and the OpenGIS Consortium's Web Mapping Testbed.
My primary interest in gazetteers is to define how to plug them into a wider infrastructure of cascading geoprocessing services. Clearly, gazetteers will be crucial in helping people make sense out of vast collections of geographic information: clickable overview maps and bounding-box queries can only get us so far. However, "invisible" uses of gazetteers by software agents are about to become a bigger part of the picture. For instance, creating a simple digital map might silently trigger a dozen gazetteer queries to fill the pick-lists in a graphical user interface.
The coming "geoservices infrastructure" (call it what you will) has
a tremendous need for address and placename lookups; but its requirements
may be quite different from those of today's direct human users. For instance,
within such an infrastructure, a gazetteer server would need to support
not only its "native" client, but a wide variety of clients built by others.
On the server side, many (most?) data sources to be searched by a gazetteer
will not reside in an organized, local, database, with fixed, well-known
meanings. Instead, they'll be distributed across a motley assortment of
dynamic data sources, some well-known, others murky. Thus, we need well-defined
mechanisms for queries to and from gazetteers, and for semantic reconciliation
among gazetteer data sources. These are, I think, some of the more important
questions to be resolved in plugging gazetteers into a geoservices infrastructure.
Charles Falkenberg holds a B.S. and an M.S. degree in computer science from the University of Maryland and has been developing software systems since 1980. He has developed scientific data delivery systems for oceanographers, ecosystem scientists and space scientists for the last 6 years and is currently is working with the University of New Hampshire (UNH) as part of NASA's Earth Science Information Partnerships (ESIP). He previously worked in Alaska on a data delivery system for ecosystem researchers evaluating the long term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
One of the goals of the NASA ESIP program is to search and subset science
data by geographic region. The UNH ESIP has therefore made a gazetteer
central to the operation of the tool it is building to support terrestrial
ecosystem research (WEBSTER). This web-based data retrieval tool
will support standard gazetteer regions, specialized regions of interest
to the user community, and regions that have been submitted by individual
researchers as part of a single research effort.
Mr. Flynn is the Executive Secretary for Foreign Names of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and serves as the Geographer of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, positions he assumed in 1993.
He holds the degrees of Master of Arts (1977) and Bachelor of Arts (1975) in Slavic Languages and Literature from the University of Virginia, and has also studied at Indiana University and as an exchange student at Leningrad State University (now Saint Petersburg State University, Russia). Through the Defense Mapping Agency’s Long-Term Full-Time Training Program, he completed the graduate-level program in Geodetic Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, with a concentration in estimation theory (1985). Before joining the Defense Mapping Agency in 1979 as a geographic names and boundary analyst, he was an Instructor of Russian Language at the University of Virginia, and a free-lance translator.
He has lectured on geographic names database design and national names standardization at the National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping in Beijing, China, at the Main Administration for Geodesy, Cartography, and Cadastre in Kiev, Ukraine, and at the National Land Board in Riga, Latvia. He is a U.S. delegate to the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN), and acts as UNGEGN liaison with the International Hydrographic Organization. Within UNGEGN, he convenes the Working Group on Toponymic Data Files and Gazetteers. Mr. Flynn is Vice-Chairman of the Geographic Names Working Group within the Commission on Cartography of the Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH), and is an instructor in the annual PAIGH course on applied toponymy, having taught courses on geographic names in Bolivia, Honduras, Paraguay, and Peru. He is a member of the Federal Geographic Data Committee’s Subcommittee on International Boundary and Sovereignty Data.
His most recent publication is “Unicode in Geographic Data Bases,” issued in the proceedings of the 13th International Unicode Conference, September 1998.
Topic and Issue Statement:
Professor Timothy W. Foresman is the director of the EarthLab in the
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of
Maryland, Baltimore County where he teaches courses in GIS, remote sensing,
and field survey techniques. Professor Foresman leads a team of over
a dozen scientists and research associates focusing on local, regional,
and global Earth science and human ecosystem research issues. He
serves as a principal investigator on a variety of research programs sponsored
by NASA, US. EPA, US. Forest Service, National Science Foundation, and
other state and local agencies. Professor Foresman’s real world experience
expands over twenty years and includes private consulting, county government,
and federal research all dealing with the use of spatial analysis tools
to solve human and environmental problems resulting from the impacts of
urban/rural expansion. Professor Foresman is the founder of the Baltimore-Washington
Collaboratory, a regional experiment in sharing data and expertise to empower
citizens with information and technology necessary for participatory democracy.
He is founder of the Maryland National Spatial Data Infrastructure Node.
He also serves as co-PI and data manager for the Baltimore Ecosystem Study
under the NSF Long Term Ecosystem Research program. Professor Foresman
is currently detailed to NASA Headquarters where he leads the Digital Earth
program. He has published over 70 books, chapters, and professional
Mr. Furr has worked in the field of cartography for over thirty-two years. He spent the first thirteen years at the USGS in Denver before accepting his current position as Manager of Cartography with the Oklahoma Geological Survey. Wayne is also the secretary of the Oklahoma Board on Geographic Names. As secretary, he answers numerous questions about Oklahoma’s vast expanse of geographic names, keeps the records of the Oklahoma-BGN, and make recommendations to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names. He is a member of the Oklahoma State GIS Council’s Technical Subcommittee, where he promotes official geographic-name usage among other members of the Council. He was a Principal Investigator for the Phase II compilation of Oklahoma names for the Geographic Names Information System. Current projects include: (1) compiling a record of all geologic maps for Oklahoma with entry into the USGS National Geologic Map Database and (2) researching the origins and histories of Oklahoma names for future publication.
In 1973, Wayne received an Associates Degree from Red Rocks Community College, Golden, Colorado, where he studied drafting and surveying; a Bachelors Degree in Geography, summa cum laude (1989) with additional graduate work from the University of Oklahoma. He has taught cartography at the University of Oklahoma and is presently on the Geography Department’s Board of Visitors. He is the Executive Secretary of the Council of Geographic Names Authorities, former Chairman of the Consortium of Oklahoma Geographers, an Executive Council Member of the American Name Society, and a member of Phi Kappa Phi, and the Golden Key National Honor Society.
His interest in the Digital Gazetteer Information Exchange Workshop is that of geographic-name information sharing, especially in the area of standardization. He feels that standardization comes through education about the official geographic names, including the principles, policies, and procedures that apply to their application for placement on maps and in publications.
Over the last twenty years, Janet Gomon has served in a variety of positions within the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian, primarily directing and participating in information programs and initiatives at Institution, national, and international levels. Her academic training and research is in systematic ichthyology. Prior to joining the Smithsonian, she worked as research fisheries biologist for EPA’s National Marine Water Quality Lab, Office of Research and Monitoring.
My interest in the workshop is from the perspective of addressing the
needs of the natural history/biodiversity research community and from an
information architecture viewpoint. Recent experience has included
directing development of a prototype for efficiently georeferencing large
amounts of specimen locality records. This prototype implementation
demonstrated a range of gazetteer data and services limitations pertinent
to workshop discussions. As member of the DGIE Workshop Steering
Committee, I’ll be assisting with final workshop reports and follow-on
The underlying principle of "Gateway to Earth" is that a person should
be able to find all the information available for a given place on the
earth by specifying a geographic point, a named feature, or a particular
topic. The concept of a digital gazetteer may be the solution to the indirect
geospatial referencing necessary for the type of searches that the Internet
implementation of Gateway to Earth will support. The National Mapping
Division Internet Services Coordinator is representing the Division on
USGS the "Gateway to Earth" activities.
Tim Gregg is Manager of Resource Mapping Section, Engineering Division for the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR). He oversees the photogrammetry, cartography, aerial photolab and state base mapping functions of DNR. This involves providing geographic products and services to support: the statewide regulatory responsibilities of DNR; the proprietary, land management functions of managing five million acres of state trust land; and the citizens of the state of Washington.
He is also the Executive Secretary for the Washington State Board on Geographic Names which has the statutory responsibility for officially designating geographic names in the state of Washington. He is currently a member of the Executive Committee for the Council of Geographic Names Authorities (COGNA), an organization of state naming authorities that promotes standardization, coordination, education and information exchange. He has a bachelors and masters degree in forestry from the University of Michigan, and MBA from University of Puget Sound.
His interest in the DGIE workshop is twofold;
(1) to serve the public interest in the state of Washington by establishing naming policies and procedures; coordinating these activities with local, state and federal agencies; and promoting and using official geographic names that retain the significance and color of the early history of Washington.
(2) the development and application of digital data bases to provide geographic products and services that support DNR proprietary and regulatory functions. DNR currently manages more than a dozen statewide georeferenced data layers that support this work.
I am the Founder and President of Go2 Systems, Inc., an Irvine, California
company which has patented and is currently developing and marketing a
new geographic referencing system designed for use on the Internet through
a variety of web-enabled and ultimately navigation capable electronic devices,
including wireless telephones, vehicle navigation systems, personal data
assistants and portable computers. I am the co-inventor on our patents
along with Peter H. Dana, and we are currently working with a few very
qualified geographers to help finalize the design of the system with a
goal of making the system available in late 1999. One of the components
of the Go2 System, which we also refer to as the World Geographic Reference
System, or WGRS, is a structured and abbreviated Placename address function
which allows for the registration and distribution through the Internet
of unique Go2 Addresses for geographic locations which are similar to the
structure and registration system for Internet domain names.
While it is anticipated that the Go2 System will be used initially to facilitate
real-world navigation and local commerce over the Internet from a variety
web-enabled devices, we believe that the system might help provide a standardized
geo-referencing system for many other applications. Another component
of the System is a new hierarchical geo-coordinate system which is fully
integrated with the Go2 Placename structure and format, and this component
of the system may also provide some benefits in connection with the objective
of the workshop.
Quinn Hart is a Technical Researcher for the California Resources Agency's CERES Program, the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System. Quinn is responsible for review and implementation of standards and applications relating to metadata, indexing, and cataloging issues.
Linda L. Hill, Ph.D.
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
Alexandria Digital Library website: http://legacy.alexandria.ucsb.edu
ADL Gazetteer Development: http://legacy.alexandria.ucsb.edu/gazetteer
Queens College, B.A., Physics-Geology, 1967
University of Chicago, M.S., Geophysical Sciences, 1969
Director, World Data Center-A for Solid Earth Geophysics
Chief, Solid Earth Geophysics Division
NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303
Allen Hittelman's professional experience includes three decades of scientific data and information management experience, with extensive interactions in all sectors of the economy -- government, industry, academia and the general public. He has served as: an oceanographer in the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, 1967-1975; a senior data administrator in the Atlantic Richfield Exploration Company, 1982-1986, an independent data management consultant, 1986-87; and a senior geophysicist in the National Geophysical Data Center, 1975-1982 and 1987 to date.
Allen Hittelman manages the Solid Earth Geophysics Division, which runs a national and World Data Center (WDC) operation. He has served as Division Chief and Director of WDC-A for Solid Earth Geophysics since January 1995. This activity focuses on the integration of terrestrial data (collected in situ, satellite, plane, and ships) for use in numerous Earth science research efforts -- environmental issues, global change, hazard mitigation, academic research, mapping and energy exploration.
Hittelman is active in numerous national and international data management organizations. Examples include participation in:
Hittelman is a data directory specialist, serving (for example) as science advisor to the Catalog Interoperability (CI) Project. This international activity, linking high level data directory descriptions to online data inventory and databases, is sponsored by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management and Global Change (IWGDMGC).
- American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Geophysical Integration Committee
- International Lithosphere Program’s (ILP) Coordinating Committee on Data Exchange and Centres
- Steering Committee the American Geological Institute’s (AGI) National Geoscience Data Repository
- Steering Committee for the NASA-sponsored Science Information Systems Interoperability Conference
- Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) National Spatial Data Clearinghouse Working Group
- National Research Council’s Committees on Seismology and Advancement of Strong Motion Programs
He has organized and chaired international workshops to develop data
exchange formats and to expand frontiers in data storage, retrieval and
display. He received a Vice-Presidential Hammer Award in 1996 for
his work on the Federal Geographic Data Committee. He has authored
numerous Earth science data compilations on compact disc, with access software
(and user manuals), integrating multiple scientific disciplines in a desk-top
environment; subset data selection and browse (via color maps and data
profiles) are supported. His support of environmental data stewardship,
information technology innovation, and improved data fusion/visualization
was acknowledged in 1995 with a Department of Commerce Silver Medal (in
1995) and Bronze Medal (in 1998).
Information International Web Site: www.infointl.com
CENDI Web Site: www.dtic.mil/cendi
NKOS Web Site: legacy.alexandria.ucsb.edu/~lhill/nkos/
Technology Innovations Manager
U.S. Geological Survey/Biological Resources Division
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, 300 National Center,
Reston, VA 20192
Chris Jones is Professor of Geographical Information Systems at the
University of Glamorgan. He has worked previously at the University of
Cambridge, BP Exploration and at the British Geological Survey. He
graduated in geology, from Bristol University, and received a PhD, from
the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, for research on periodicities in
fossil growth rhythms. Current research interests include the use of geographical
information in hypermedia for public information access; multiscale spatial
databases; the computer reconstruction and visualisation of fossils; and
automated cartographic design with regard to map generalisation and
automated text placement. He initiated and led the development of the Maplex automated cartographic name placement software.
My interest in digital gazetteers stems from research that I have been
engaged in for several years on the use of semantic models of geographically-referenced
information for purposes of public information access, particularly in
the context of museums. Previous research in collaboration with Douglas
Tudhope and Carl Taylor led to the development of an experimental semantic
hypermedia architecture which
combined geographic context with non-spatial classification and time. At present I am participating in a follow up project with Tudhope and Harith Alani in which we are developing a geographical thesaurus, which places a major emphasis on place names. We are using a semantic modelling tool to create a prototype thesaurus that includes place name data from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, in combination with object classification data (AAT) and historical site data for a test area in Scotland. The geographical thesaurus is in some respects closely analogous to a typical gazetteer in that the amount of geometric data is strictly limited (principally point coordinates), but it differs in having richer semantic content.
Our research on geographical thesauri has several objectives that are
directly relevant to the exploitation of gazetteers. In particular we are
interested in a) automated techniques for approximating the spatial footprint
from sparse data; b) including qualitative spatial relations with place
names that may used in combination with the sparse geometric data; and
c) the development of imprecise query processing through
spatial semantic closeness metrics that can be used to rank the importance of stored place names that do not match exactly the names that may be specified by a user.
I envisage that my main contribution to the workshop would be in highlighting issues regarding appropriate content for a standard gazetteer and in research directions that would assist in exploiting gazetteers in the context of geographical information retrieval.
Some relevant publications include the following:
Jones A.G., C.B. Jones and D. Tudhope (1998) 'Intelligent interpretation of terminology for a public access GIS'. Proceedings GIS Research UK (GISRUK98), Edinburgh, pp 11.11-11.15
Jones C.B. (1997) 'Geographical Information Access in Museums'. Editorial for Special Issue of MDA Information 2(3), pp 1-2.
Jones C.B. (1997) 'GIS and Museums', in Geographical Information Access in Museums, MDA Information 2(3), (special issue, edited by C.B. Jones), pp 21-26.
Jones C.B. (1997) 'Geographical interfaces to museum collections'. Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums ICHIM97, pp 226-236.
Jones C.B., C. Taylor, D. Tudhope, P. Beynon-Davies (1996). 'Conceptual, spatial and temporal referencing of multimedia objects'. Advances in GIS Research II, Proceedings 7th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Delft, Taylor and Francis, pp 2.13-26.
Jones C.B., P. Beynon-Davies, C. Taylor and D.S. Tudhope (1995). 'GIS, hypermedia and historical information access', Information: The Hidden Resource, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the Museum Documentation Association, Edinburgh, The Museum Documentation Association pp 109-113.
Tudhope, D., P. Beynon-Davies, C. Taylor and C. B. Jones (1995). 'Virtual architecture based on a binary relational model: a museum hypermedia application'. Hypermedia 6(3), pp 174-192.
Beynon-Davies P., D. Tudhope, C. Taylor and C.B. Jones (1994) 'A semantic
database approach to intelligent hypermedia systems', Information and Software
Technology, 36(6), pp 323-329.
I have recently been involved in devising and implementing an on-line geographic names registration system that is integrated with the State's mapping, and supports the devolution of naming responsibilities to local governing and administering agencies. The foundations of this system address (i) the changing nature of service delivery (esp. the increasing reliance on timely, accurate and unambiguous geospatial information, and the need for data availability and integration); (ii) process streamlining (only possible through re-engineering to suit and realise the opportunities that operating in a digital environment can offer); and (iii) the need to emphasise community input (by utilising and managing knowledge at the local level, and providing a transparent system).
On the national level, currently I am project managing the strategy
development and implementation planning for the development and adoption
of data modelling/data dictionary/ format /encoding standards Australasia
- wide [through CGNA (Committee for Geographic Names in Australasia)].
One of the main drivers of this is not only the setting up of basic geographic
naming infrastructure / protocols on a national level and the mechanisms
to upgrade the quality of data and service to the customers of the national
gazetteer, but to integrate the different State's gazetteers with the ICSM
(Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping) topographic data
model draft Australian and New Zealand standard.
Dr. Kottman holds a B.S. in Mathematics (Loyola Marymount U., Los Angeles), and a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Iowa). His career has included research and education (at Louisiana State University, and Oregon State University, government and mapping (at the Defense Mapping Agency), systems integrator and software industries (at Lockheed and Intergraph Corporations), and not-for-profit technology companies (at MITRE and the Open GIS Consortium). As Vice President and Chief Scientist of the Open GIS Consortium, Dr. Kottman leads the OGC Core and Domain Task Forces toward the establishment of consensus implementation specifications in the arena of geospatial information.
Dr. Kottman is a member of: the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping;
the Federal Geographic Data Committee; the NCITS Committee L1 on Geographic
Information; the Mathematical Association of America; the American Mathematical Society; the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping; the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; and he is the OGC Liaison to ISO Technical Committee 211.
Dr. Kottman has research interests in information theory, digital cartography, the representation of digital geographic information and its analysis, the standardization process, image processing, photogrammetry, library science, linguistics and semantics, and signal processing.
The Open GIS Consortium is composed of 185 organizational members, including major information technology corporations, universities, and government organizations who share the marketplace for geospatial information and services. Our organization exists because major corporations and government agencies recognize that "non-interoperation" of geospatial information causes tremendous waste of resources in public and private projects, and because it is clear that there are great organizational efficiencies to be gained by effectively integrating spatial and place-based information into the corporate work-flow.
OGC membership includes the most important technology, geospatial product and integrator companies in the world, including Oracle, Informix, Microsoft, SUN, IBM, HP, Intergraph, ESRI, Autodesk, Sicad Geomatics, Deutsche PhonSat, MapInfo, Lockheed Martin, SAIC, BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., Booz, Allen Hamilton, Inc., CSK Corp., Electricité de France, GEOCOM Informatik AG, Geodan Holding BV, GIS Denmark A/S, GTE, Harris Corp., Marconi Information Systems Inc., Matra Systemes & Information, MITRE Corporation, Mitsubishi Corporation, NTT Data Corporation, Raytheon Systems Company, Litton/PRC/TASC, TRW Systems & Information Technology Group and Unisys.
OGC membership also includes many key government agencies both in the US and abroad - such organizations as the DOD's National Imaging and Mapping Agency, the US Geological Survey, the Departments of Agriculture and Transportation, the Bureau of the Census, the UK Ordnance Survey, the Mapping Agency of Korea and the Dutch Kadaster.
The membership also includes 56 universities, world wide.
The Consortium is shaping an open and efficient marketplace for geospatial
services and information. Recently, it has developed consensus implementation
specifications for interfaces supporting "simple feature access" which
include most or all of the behaviors needed by digital gazetteers.
David Lanter is responsible for developing, integrating, maintaining, and assuring the quality of Rand McNally's geographic data and derivative products. He holds a doctoral in Geographic Information Processing from University of South Carolina, a master's degree in Geographic Information Systems from the State University of New York at Buffalo, and a bachelor's with honors from Clark University. He has have taught digital cartography and geographic information systems at the Universities of Washington at Seattle and California at Santa Barbara.
"Prior to Rand McNally: At Microsoft Corp., I led the quality assurance of geospatial data and digital maps used in the company's electronic and internet products. At Geographic Designs Inc., Rupert Essinger and I pioneered the development of geospatial metadata software tools. In addition, I have worked at Navigation Sciences developing real-time navigation systems for boats, and at Grumman Data Systems designing strategic and tactical cartographic applications for the AirForce.
A few items on my Team's wish list for a Digital Gazetteer:
Ray R. Larson, Ph.D.
School of Information Management and Systems
University of California at Berkeley
Berkeley, California 94720-4600
I am the senior product manager for Oracle's Spatial Products Division.
Current R&D interests lie in the development of spatial information
infrastructures, digital libraries, and on-line catalog services.
My work is dedicated to the integration spatial information into mainline
information technology, especially databases, and to enable enterprise
and distributed geographic information processing. Germane projects include
the delivery of wireless location services, XML spatial data servers, and
integration of vector, geoimage, and gazetteer data within object relational databases.
I am the Head of Technical Services for the Geography and Map Division,
Library of Congress, and I also sit, as a deputy member, on the Foreign
Names Committee of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) for the Library
of Congress. The Library's Member on the Board on Geographic Names
is unable to attend the workshop because of a scheduling conflict. I am
interested in the topic because of the impact on the name and subject authority
files, which currently contain authority records for place names, produced
by the Library of Congress, and because of my more than 30 years of experience
in the the Geography and Map Division and in working toward the establishment
of standards. I was involved in the development of USMARC for cartographic
materials, I assisted in the preparation of the FGDC Content Standards
for Digital Geospatial Metadata, and I am the current Secretariat for the
Anglo-American Committee on Cataloguing Cartographic Materials, editors
of Cartographic Matierals: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR2.
Patrick McGlamery is the map librarian at the Map
and Geographic Information Center Homer Babbidge Library, University
of Connecticut. The map library is the host to a networked collection
of over 20,000 geodata files for the state of Connecticut. The on-line
collection represents digital products of federal, state and municipal
agencies. MAGIC also serves as the state's NSDI site. MAGIC is moving
toward a 'digital library' with stronger search components, internet mapping
applications, cataloging/metadata and archiving responsibilities.
Mr. McGlamery has had an abiding interest in gazetteers and human links
to the geographic landscape. He was on the Advisory Board of the
OmniGraphics Gazetteer of the United States and contributed the chapter,
"Acquiring and Using Maps and Other Cartographic Resources." Mr.
McGlamery's interest in the Digital Gazetteer Information Exchange Workshop
is based on creating natural language links to the geographic information
The Data Library, based in the University of Edinburgh, has been part of the UK academic research infrastructure for more than a decade. The Data Library hosts EDINA (Edinburgh Data and Information Access), which is one of three national data centres funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). EDINA provides the academic community with access to both bibliographic datasets and geospatial research data. EDINA supports some 20,000 users across 159 academic and research institutes. It successfully runs the UKBORDERS service on behalf of the ESRC/JISC 1991 Census Programme. This delivers 37 different types of historical and current digitised boundary data of Great Britain to over 1200 registered users.
The Data Library has recently been awarded the contract by the JISC to establish a national service, called EDINA Digimap, providing on-line access to Ordnance Survey (OS) digital map data. One of the data products available through the Digimap service is the OS 1:50000 Place Name gazetteer. With over a quarter of a million entries the gazetteer is a comprehensive guide to place names within Great Britain from 'A' Bheinn Bhan' to 'Zulu Fm'. The gazetteer contains all place names that are present on Ordnance Survey's published 1:50 000 Landranger® maps. The Digimap team is developing an easy to use front end to this database that will allow the user to search by various means, e.g. 'find me all places in the county of X', and retrieve for each relevant entry the type of feature represented by the name; the latitude and longitude; the 1 and 20 km National Grid squares; the county the entry is in; the number(s) of the published Landranger® map sheets; and the date the entry was added to the gazetteer.
The Data Library is also involved in a number of gazetteer projects.
The most important is its work with the Historic Data Service, part of
the ESRC Data Archive, on a project to develop and provide an online, fast,
scaleable and extensible British and Irish gazetteer which can handle changed
and changing geographical boundaries. In order to do this the online British
and Irish gazetteer would incorporate both historical and modern geographical
perspectives, and hold a wide range of information about geographic names,
units, and hierarchies. Staff in the Data Library are also involved with
the Scottish Place-name Database project, and the place names components
of the Scottish National Dictionary (Post 1700) and the Dictionary of Old
Scottish Tongue (pre 1700). The Data Library is being considered as the
service provider of the electronic resources resulting from these projects.
My interest in the workshop is in developing information systems which
maintain and define digital gazetteers and in the conceptual mappings among
different place name geographies (for example, is "ventura county" in "southern
Tom Moritz is Director of the Library at the American Museum of Natural
History and currently is Principal Investigator on a $2 million, five year
grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to produce a digital library
integrating all forms of natural history information -- including collections
(specimen and artifact) data. He is a long time participant in initiatives
to develop inclusive strategies for capture and managment of museum information.
Spectra: (International Journal of the Museum Computer Network), Summer 1989, v.16(2):18,20. ) And at the Annual ESRI Users' Conference [GIS] in 1997 co-authored a presentation on the use of ARCVIEW to plot multidisciplinary, multi-institutional museum specimen data. He is also Chair of the Information
Management Task Force for the World Commission on Protected Areas of IUCN (The World Conservation Union) and is vice-Chair of BCIS (the Biodiversity Conservation Information System) an international consortium of international organizations focusing on the managment and delivery of biodiversity information (SEE <www.biodiversity.org>).
Hopes for this meeting are that the needs for inclusion of retrospective
("obsolete") place names as needed by the museum, archaeological, art history
and historical community can be entertained in gazetteer development and
that a mechanism or mechanisms for distributed contributions to a common
utility that meets this need can be developed. Development of effective
access to inclusive global map servers (current and retrospective maps)
is another intertest.
Melissa is the Administrative Assistant
for the Alexandria Digital Library Project at the University of California,
Santa Barbara, and also the Administrative Assistant for the DGIE workshop.
Mike Mulligan works in the area of Informatics Research in the Center
for Biological Informatics in Denver, a unit of the U.S. Geological Survey,
Biological Resources Division. Prior to this assignment, he worked on information
infrastructure with the National Biological Service, with the National
Park Service's GIS program , with the Defense Mapping Agency, and with
the Wetlands Habitat Inventory Unit for the NY State Dept. of Environmental
Conservation. He has an undergraduate degree in English and two Master's
degrees in Geography: Cartography, 1982 (SUNY Oneonta) & GIS, 1992
Statement of Interest for the Workshop: For the international
base of the Geospatial Data Clearinghouse it would be very helpful to establish
a searching convention for the return of structured geospatial "place"
information, similar to a DNS or LDAP response such that a user/software
could retrieve authoritative or non-authoritative coordinate and reference
info for a place. This is a type of geographic names service. Microsoft
has proposed something similar, called Uniform Geographic Locators in the
past, but I have not heard further work. The creation of a protocol and
syntax for the query and retrieval of geographic place information would
be a most useful outcome that geographic service providers could adopt.
These should include governmental and commercial sources of place information
and not be limited to traditional mapped locales but should support address
matching for maximum application.
Douglas D. Nebert
Phone: +1 703 648 4151
Fax: +1 703 648-5755
Pager Messaging: http://fgdclearhs.er.usgs.gov/dougmsg.html
I am responsible for an interagency digital library of the state of
the environment (http://www.sdi.gov/diglib.htm)
which involves creating metadata for documents that include both geographic
places and environmental themes. I am also part of the Interagency LandView
Planning Group (Census, NOAA, EPA, USGS, etc.) that makes GIS software
and Federal geospatial databases and their metadata available to the public
and for educational purposes including the USGS's Geographic Names Information
System (GNIS) (http://cdserver.er.usgs.gov/lviii.htm).
I would like to make my digital library content searchable by coordinates
as well as by place name and theme and include a Digital Gazetteer in our
next public release of LandView on DVD-ROM and in our LandView-FGDC metadata
clearinghouse. I have participated and made presentations in other Digital
Government Workshops and recent digital library and metadata meetings.
Leslie Norton is the Administrative Assistant to the Director of the Arizona Department of Library, Archives and Public Records. Duties include legislative liaison to the Arizona Legislature and responsibility for Department projects and reports. Leslie is also the Administrative Assistant to the Arizona State Board on Geographic and Historic Names, with responsibilities of: liaison for communication and activity between the board and the U.S. Board on Geographic Names; liaison for the board with city, county, state, federal, tribal authorities, and the general public; researching and processing name inquiries and proposals; coordinator and participant in outreach efforts to educate the public about the work of the board.
Leslie earned a Bachelor of Science Degree from Portland State University,
Tim Norton was appointed to the Board on Geographic & Historic Names by the Governor in January 1993. He was elected Chair in January 1994 and has been re-elected every year since. He was re-appointed to the Board by the Governor in January 1998 for a 5 year term. He is one of two "public" Board members specified by statute. Prior to official status on the Board, he attended meetings as interested citizen.
He is a Phoenix Police Officer, with 19.5 years service, and currently serves as Administrative Officer to Assistant Police Chief over Investigations Division. He served 5 years with Arizona DPS (Highway Patrol).
He has made a presentation on "Arizona history and history of place names in Arizona."
He has a Bachelor Of Arts degree in Management from the University of Phoenix, 1986. His interests include: photography, Arizona History, travel in Arizona and delving into "why is it called that?"
"I have been a user of maps and names information for many, many years and am considered a "ground pounder" when it comes to using the back roads and maps to figure out where I am or have been. Names along the way are very useful to me and I always want to know more about the history behind the place name."
"My interest in this workshop lies in the following realms:
· As a state names authority with decision making power regarding “official” names of the state of Arizona
· As a state names authority using and contributing data
· As a state names authority establishing and sharing data
· As a “user” (i.e. public) of gazetteer information.
In addition, both of the individuals who provide research support to
the Board are librarians. The information gained from the workshop
would be passed on to them to assist in their research and referral efforts."
Kathleen is the Coordinator for the Canadian Permanent Committee on
Geographical Names (CPCGN). She has a Bachelor's degree in English
and Latin and in 2001 will earn a Bachelor's degree in Geography.
Her first involvement with gazetteers came in 1973 as a student when, as
part of her tasks, Kathleen proofread the Gazetteer of Canada:
Alberta and did verification of information for the Gazetteer of
Canada: Ontario. Since 1976, Kathleen has worked on various facets
(prefatory material, verifications of contents, decisions on format, etc.)
of every gazetteer volume that has been published by the CPCGN, including
the Concise Gazetteer of Canada published in 1997. The CPCGN's
card-index registry was automated in the late 1970s. As Senior Toponymist,
Kathleen is responsible for entering correctly into the Canadian Geographical
Names Data Base (CGNDB), all names decisions made by members of the CPCGN
or by municipal authorities. Discrepancies or errors in the decisions must
be referred back to the issuing province or territory for resolution. The
decisions are transferred to topographic maps in the CPCGN's files, ready
for the compilation of the next map edition. Starting in the 1980s,
the gazetteer volumes were created from the CGNDB. The first digital
version of a published gazetteer was the Gazetteer of Canada: Nova
Scotia in 1993. In 1994, we put a copy of the CGNDB on the Internet
<http://geonames.NRCan.gc.ca>. Since December 1990, Kathleen has
been lead editor on several issues of Canoma (a publication about
news and views on Canadian toponymy), including the issue celebrating the
Centennial of the CPCGN. She has written several geographical names
articles for this publication over the years, including one for the issue
celebrating the Centennial of the USBGN. Several of her articles
appear on the GeoNames SchoolNet web site <http://geonames.NRCan.gc.ca/english/schoolnet>.
Kathleen has written several articles on geographical names and other subjects for local newspapers and the local historical society's newsletter. In 1998, Kathleen took on the first of eight genealogical web sites.
I am concerned about how you show verbal locational information to more
than one language community in a gazetteer. I expect to have other
members of the CPCGN shortly.
It is important to have standards for digital gazetteer data.
Data should be obtainable from one central source. Data at the province,
territory, or state level should be the same as at the national level for
the jurisdiction but might include information specific to that jurisdiction.
Changes to the data should only be made by designated persons, usually
staff members. Outsiders should not be allowed to change the data.
Gazetteers and digital data bases should serve the language needs of their
Lola M. Olsen holds a B.S. degree in Biological Science from Michigan State University, a Masters' Degree in Geography/Earth Science from the University of North Carolina, and has completed course work for a Ph.D. at the University of North Carolina in climatology. She taught in the Earth Sciences Department at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte through 1985, then served as Project Manager for NASA's Climate Data System until 1994 when she became Project Manager for the Global Change Master Directory. Ms. Olsen also taught Remote Sensing at the University of Maryland from 1992 - 1995 and annually mentors university students with remote sensing and GIS interests. She chairs the interagency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) subgroup of the US Global Change Research Program.
For the past 7 years I have worked with NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Information Management Subsystem (IMS) team. Prior to this I worked with NASAs Pilot Land Data System and on various science projects with NASA and NOAA. My B.S and M.S degrees are in Geosciences and Remote Sensing from Purdue University.
As Lead Information Management System Engineer for EOSDIS, I am responsible
for system interoperability, associated data management and user interface
development. Our users have a need for a gazetteer tool as part of
our user interface. A gazetteer can serve multiple purposes in our
system. It serves the obvious need of connecting place names with geographic
locations, but it can also serve as a way to connect geophysical phenomena
and events with space and time coordinates so that users have much more
flexibility in specifying search criteria.
Doug Ramsey is currently the director of the Remote Sensing and GIS
laboratory at Utah State University. He is a plant ecologist, remote
sensing, and GISspecialist. Dr. Ramsey has a Bachelors of Science Degree
in Range Resource Management, and a Masters of Science in Plant Ecology
from Brigham Young University. His Doctorate is in Geography from the University
of Utah. Dr. Ramsey's main interest lie in applying digital remote sensing
data to ecosystem modeling and developing GIS data bases to aid in resource
management and research. He has 11 years of practical experience using
LANDSAT MSS and TM, AVHRR, SPOT, as well as aerial photography and airborne
videography. Dr. Ramsey has conducted research in the Western U.S., Mexico,
Egypt, and Iceland in semiarid, forested, agricultural, and urbanized
landscapes. He has developed techniques for analyzing spatial data using
GIS to solve problems in natural resource management, geology, landscape
ecology and archeology. He has extensive experience with the ERDAS image
processing and GIS system, ELAS image processing software, and ARC/INFO
vector based GIS. At present he is on the faculty of the Department of
Geography and Earth Resources, College of Natural Resources, Utah State
University. His main responsibilities are to conduct research in
remote sensing and GIS, as well as teach introductory and advanced remote
sensing and GIS courses. He has organized and taught 4 weeklong and
1 monthlong workshops in remote sensing and GIS for natural resource
managers, and works closely with land management agencies to train personnel
in the use of remotely sensed data and GIS.
Research Interests: Information storage and retrieval from electronic
databases, especially performance issues related to the structure of information
systems, parallel and distributed systems, algorithms for information retrieval,
clustering as a tool for information retrieval and data discovery, query
formulation and expansion. Database quality issues. Aspects of indexing
including automatic indexing and the development of indexing vocabularies.
Multimedia databases, especially image indexing and retrieval.
My research interest in geographic information systems involves the
possibility of identifying particular people or groups of people through
identification of place. For two decades my research has focused
on the privacy implications of new communication and information technologies.
As geographic systems become more sophisticated and more powerful, it is
possible that privacy implications might be raised by these systems.
I would see my role at the workshop as in helping to identify the research
and policy issues that are assoicated with the development of digital gazetters.
Mr. Rivera is a University teacher of history and geography in Honduras C.A. He has a Bachelor degree in Social Sciences, a License degree in History, and a Master's degree in Geography from New Mexico State University. He has created geographical dictionaries and a gazetteer of Honduras places. In addition, he has worked as an Instructor to the Pan America Institute of Geography and History's Geographic Names Course, made in Latin American countries.
It is a pleasure to attend the DGIE Workshop in which I will find people who work as myself in gazetteers and geographic names. I am really interested in sharing information, sources and knowledges among colleagues and friends around America and the world.
Along with Roger Payne, I served on the Features Working Group of the National Committee for Digital Cartographic Data Standards, a project of ACSM that led to the adoption of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard as a Federal Information Processing Standard. The Features Working Group developed Part 2 of SDTS, "Spatial Features." Following the adoption of SDTS in 1993, I went on to lead the work item on "Feature Cataloguing Methodology" of the newly formed International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (Geographic Information/Geomatics). I have also served since 1993 on the American National Standards Institute accredited technical committee L1 (for GIS standards) as the project leader for "Geospatial Objects and Codes." (The L1 committee would be the logical place to refer a proposed work item for the standardization of digital gazetteer information.)
I question the assertion in the workshop proposal that feature type schemes "need to be hierarchical." Relationships and operations are at least equally important as bases for feature classification, and the resulting classes are unlikely to be hierarchically ordered. Hierarchies vary with applications and with cultures. I strongly doubt there is such a thing as a "generally applicable" hierarchy of feature types.
The fundamental question in devising a strategy for standardization
is the definition of a "digital gazetteer." In particular, what aspects
of geographic data searching and retrieval are not included in this concept,
if any? Depending on the answer to this question, either (a) there
are many current and proposed GIS standards for which digital gazetteers
are already in scope or (b) digital gazetteers may constitute a new and
somewhat different area for future GIS standardization.
Because the State Department's mandate is international affairs, we
are interested almost exclusively in data dealing with areas outside of
the United States. Our specific work projects tend to be dictated
by international crises, which often occur in places where geospatial data
is relatively scarce. We are currently working to apply the use of GIS
in a variety of projects for the Department. Recently Kosovo has
been a major focus of our work, and a NIMA-produced gazeteer of that region
proved invaluable during the recent crisis.
I have been a State Department officer since 1974. My degrees
are in economics (B.A., Rice University) and Latin American history (Ph.D.,
University of Texas), and I have done post-doctoral study in demography
(Georgetown University) and geography (George Mason University).
In recent years I have been working with various GIS applications.
(703) 379-2480 (phone)
(703) 379-7563 (fax)
Through my involvement with GeoRef for the last twenty-five years, I
have become interested in the use of geographic identifiers for search
and retrieval in bibliographic databases. The GeoRef database is
a bibliographic geoscience database referencing studies of the Earth throughout
the world. Defining specific geographic areas is essential to usage
of our data and, as part of that need, we have developed controlled terminology
for approximately 13,000 geographic areas. Where possible we have also
defined these areas using latitude and longitude boxes.
Primary interest: Programatic interface to world-wide gazetteer to provide automated determination of latitude and longitude (+elevation) from locality information, specifically, but not exclusively, for georeferencing natural history specimens. The interface must work across the internet using a well known protocol such as CORBA, Z39.50, or HTTP+XML, and must provide rapid determination to a large number of clients simultaneously.
Secondary interest: Providing additional information for gazetteer layers
from biodiversity information held in biological collections databases
and simulated organism distributions via conformance to the GEO Z39.50
tel +44 1954 251003
fax +44 1954 201999
I am an independent consultant specialising in geographic information,
working mostly in the utility and government sectors. I am active in standards
making, and am a member of the British Standards Committee on geographic
information. I have a particular interest in spatial referencing and data
quality, and was the principal author of the British Standards for street
gazetteers and addressing. As the UK representative on ISO/TC 211 WG3 Spatial
data administration, I am Project Leader for Spatial referencing - Geographic
I am the primary coordinator for research and collections informatics projects for the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Among other duties, I coordinate the collections (including taxonomic and geographic) databases and web-enabled databases for the NMNH. I am interested in using digital gazetteers to enhance our large (ca. 5 million records) and growing specimen databases. We have both tremendous needs and tremendous untapped resources in this area.
I am also a Ph.D. systematic botanist and Research Associate in the
Department of Botany. As a researcher I see nearly endless needs
and uses for georeferenced data in systematic research. In turn,
better data for systematics studies will allow for better understanding
Mr. White's educational background includes a Masters Degree in Public Administration and a Bachelors Degree in Geography, both from West Virginia University, and a certificate in geographic information systems from Northern Virginia Community College. Other academic accomplishments are an internship with a regional economic development organization and commissioning as a reserve officer through Air Force ROTC. Additionally, Mr. White has significant training in systems management, object-oriented technology, imaging sciences, remote sensing , and contract management.
Mr. White's has worked for the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the Defense Mapping Agency (NIMA's predecessor) for the past ten years, first as a production cartographer, then systems manager, and now as a physical scientist. His duties for the last three years have been as a project manager and as a contracting officer's representative of R&D projects. A majority of the projects have dealt with object-oriented approaches for geospatial applications and data interoperability issues.
Interests in the DGIE are how the ideas could be incorporated into existing
geospatial data interoperability efforts. The goal is to examine ways to
overcome barriers to interoperability without losing data quality. Particular
attention will be to examine how DGIE ideas may be used in
treating features and their attributes (names, metadata, etc.) as objects.
I am the Senior Museum Scientist here at UCR's Entomology Research Museum,
in charge of some 2 million insect specimens (in the top 25 insect collections
in the US). I have also designed and am doing the data entry for the database
we are using to inventory this collection, and I make DAILY use of the
GNIS and GEONET on-line gazetteers, as I add georeferencing information
to the records. While our needs may differ little in most respects from
those working with other types of natural history collections, I think
the sheer volume of geographic data associated with even an average insect
collection makes those of us who work with them especially well-suited
for inclusion in a workshop of this sort; the *scale* of the task of georeferencing
several million specimens is such that possibly no one else stands to derive
greater practical benefit from ANYTHING that can help streamline the acquisition
of gazetteer data. My personal experience as a database designer (I've
designed databases now in use at the University of Kansas, Illinois Natural
History Survey, and UCR), and regular contact with other folks in the bioinformatics
circle, such as Peter Rauch, Dan Janzen, Chris Thompson, Len Krishtalka,
Rob Colwell, and Jim Beach.
MARCIA LEI ZENG, M.A., Wuhan University; Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh.
Major research interests: knowledge organization and representation, multilingual information processing and publishing, information retrieval, indexing and abstracting, and database quality control. Recent research projects include (1) a system designed for cross-thesauri searching and for multi-thesauri management (http://circe.slis.kent.edu/mzeng/macmed/tmshome.html) for a complementary and alternative medicine resource; (2) a study of various metadata for describing historical fashion objects; and (3) a Chinese text segmentation program and a large-scale term dictionary which supports the segmentation (http://circe.slis.kent.edu/mzeng/carlseg.html). My interests that overlap with this workshop's focus reside on two major areas: multilingual issues involved in indirect spatial referencing of information resources through geographic names, and the potential usage of digital gazetteer in information exchange among various countries and cultures. I also hope to contribute to the workshop through my knowledge of multilingual processing and my research in classification and vocabulary control.